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Ayurvedic Energy States

by Robert Keith Wallace

(excerpt from Quantum Golf second edition)

The principle of Energy States is derived from Ayurveda, India’s comprehensive and prevention-oriented system of natural medicine which addresses our body, mind, and environment. This holistic approach to health evaluates each person according to his or her “dosha,” the individual mind/body type or nature, which we refer to in this book as an Energy State. There are three fundamental Energy States that are traditionally called Vata, Pitta, and Kapha.
We use the letter V to represent Vata, P to represent Pitta, and K to represent Kapha. Each of these Energy States, V, P, and K, can occur singly or in combination of any two or even all three. [Note to Reader: In Gut Crisis and The Rest And Repair Diet, we use the expression Gut/Brain Nature rather than Energy State to refer to the individual mind/body type. And in Beauty, Ayurveda, and Essential Oil Skincare we call it the Brain/Body Nature or type. The terms differentiate slightly according to the focus of the book, but they all refer to Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, and are virtually interchangeable.]

Ayurveda has long possessed the ability to precisely determine how different factors influence each Energy State, either positively or negatively. Diet, for example, is an important factor, which creates either balance or imbalance in our Energy State. We all react differently to environmental triggers, and while modern science has only recently discovered that different foods turn genes on or off, Ayurveda has understood the far-reaching effect of food for centuries. Epigenetic is the term given to the study of how environmental factors affect the DNA without changing its basic structure, and some researchers consider Ayurveda to be an ancient science of epigenetics. Research supports the scientific basis of Ayurveda, showing significant correlation between the three main Energy States (doshas) and specific genetic and physiological measures. There is even a new field called Ayurgenomics devoted to this research. For more information, see references at the end of this section.

Ayurveda identifies specific environmental triggers that cause people to go out of balance and perform poorly. By understanding your Energy State, it is much easier for you to adopt and maintain positive new habits.

You can determine your personal Energy State through an examination by a trained Ayurveda expert, or by taking the simple Quiz below, adapted from The Coherence Code. More detailed versions can be found at docgut.com, doshaguru.com, and dharmaparenting.com.

Energy State Quiz

V Energy State Strongly Disagree / Strongly Agree
1. Light sleeper, difficulty
falling asleep [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
2. Irregular appetite [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
3. Learns quickly but forgets quickly [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
4. Easily becomes overstimulated [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
5. Does not tolerate cold weather
very well [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
6. A sprinter rather than a marathoner [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
7. Speech is energetic, with frequent changes in topic [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
8. Anxious and worried when
under stress [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
V Score (Total your responses)

P Energy State Strongly Disagree / Strongly Agree
1. Easily becomes overheated [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
2. Strong reaction when challenged [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
3. Uncomfortable when
meals are delayed [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
4. Good at physical activity [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
5. Strong appetite [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
6. Good sleeper but may not need
as much sleep as others [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
7. Clear and precise speech [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
8. Becomes irritable and/or angry under stress [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
P Score (Total your responses)

K Energy State Strongly Disagree / Strongly Agree
1. Slow eater [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
2. Falls asleep easily but
wakes up slowly [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
3. Steady, stable temperament [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
4. Doesn’t mind waiting to eat [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
5. Slow to learn but rarely forgets [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
6. Good physical strength and stamina [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
7. Speech may be slow and thoughtful [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
8. Possessive and stubborn
under stress [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]
K Score (Total your responses)

Compare all three scores. Whichever total is higher, V, P, or K, is your primary Energy State. It is common to have two high scores and one lower score. This indicates that you are a combination of two main Energy States, with a minor influence from the third. In some cases, you may have three similar scores. This is somewhat rare and indicates that you are a Tri-Energy State. You may also find that your score highlights only one Energy State. This means that every aspect of your life is strongly influenced by this Energy State.

V ENERGY STATE

V Energy State individuals are bright, good at creating new ideas and projects, and able to learn quickly. If, however, they become imbalanced, they may easily lose their energy and can become fatigued and oversensitive. They may also experience mood swings, and they will then have difficulty in following a project through to the end. The secret for a V person to maintain balance is to follow a good routine. Certain simple dietary and lifestyle changes will also greatly help to rebalance and sustain a V Energy State person.

The appetite of a V person tends to be irregular and their digestive power is strong at one time and weak at another. Everyone likes to snack, but a V benefits from eating several small but nutritious meals throughout the day, rather than three “solids.” It is especially important for a V to eat in a quiet environment, away from distractions and stress. When their gut is balanced, the V digestion is quite good. When the V gut is out of balance, the individual may experience symptoms such as indigestion, gas, and constipation.
See The Rest And Repair Diet: Heal Your Gut, Improve Your Physical and Mental Health, and Lose Weight for details about specific dietary recommendations for your Energy State.

V individuals enjoy exercise that involves moving quickly and/or gracefully, but their physiology is not suited for endurance sports. They are sprinters rather than marathoners and must be very careful not to get overtired. Activities like dancing, paddleboarding, yoga—anything that keeps them moving easily—is excellent for a V. They do well with a gentle-to-moderate, grounding, warming workout.

V Energy State people frequently have a hard time going to sleep and are very susceptible to insomnia. They need to understand that they must avoid excessive stimulation before bedtime and take real steps to wind down and relax, such as having a warm bath, listening to peaceful music, and using calming aromatherapy.

IMBALANCE IN THE V ENERGY STATE

Causes of V Imbalance
Overstimulation
Overexertion
Irregular routine
Cold and/or windy weather
Excessive travel Too many choices
Negative emotions
Stressful situations
Unpleasant interactions with others
Signs of V Imbalance
Hyperactivity
Easily distracted
Overly emotional
Anxious
Nervous
Fearful
Lonely
Quickly changing moods Restless
High strung
Forgetful
Poor digestion
Constipation
Irregular appetite
Spacey
Recommendations To Balance V Energy State
Establish and maintain a daily routine
Avoid cold, windy weather
Reduce excessive stimulations
Guard against fatigue
Focus on specific goals Take extra rest to recharge
Have healthy and delicious snacks
Create a bedtime routine
Enjoy creative activities

P Energy State

P Energy State individuals tend to be well-organized and purposeful. They often possess good energy and a strong and penetrating intellect, and can be good leaders. It is no coincidence that businesspeople and athletes are frequently P individuals. When a P is imbalanced, they may have trouble controlling their anger, or, at the very least, irritation, from time to time. They can also be impatient, difficult to interact with, and controlling. The key to a P keeping in good balance is for them to eat on time and not become overheated. It’s that simple!
The defining characteristic of the P Energy State is a strong digestive fire. The digestive power of all Energy States is strongest at noon, and it is best for all of them to eat their largest and heaviest meal at this time. But the P gut is programmed to produce an especially powerful appetite, so it’s necessary for them to eat a good amount, on time, every day, or they will experience physical discomfort, and quite possibly, emotional turmoil or anger. When the P gut is balanced, digestion is highly efficient; but when it is out of balance, the person can experience hyperacidity and indigestion.
P Energy State individuals are usually highly competitive, and they don’t hold back. Possessing stamina and strength, they are often drawn to organized sports. They are also goal-oriented and often overdo exercise, paying the consequences later. Above all, P people need to avoid becoming overheated. Active water sports like swimming, surfing, and canoeing are all good for them. If you see somebody out parasailing, that person will almost certainly prove to be a P Energy State type.
A P Energy State person tends to go to sleep quickly. But when the P person goes out of balance, he or she can experience difficulty sleeping.

IMBALANCE IN THE P ENERGY STATE

Causes of P Imbalance
Overheating
Not eating on time
Not drinking enough water
Negative emotions Overly competitive or aggressive situations
Hot spices such as chilies
Signs of P Imbalance
Irritable
Angry
Impatient
Critical
Jealous
Hostile
Obessive-compulsive behaviors Intense hunger
Excessive thirst
Sensitivity to spicy and/or fried foods, with indigestion and/or heartburn
Excessive sweating
Temper tantrums
Recommendations To Balance P Energy State
Eat on time, especially at lunch
Prevent overheating
Keep well-hydrated
Avoid foods with “hot” spices Enjoy physical activity during the day
On hot days turn on air conditioning
On mild days keep the windows open

K Energy State

K Energy State people tend to be steady and take some time to carefully consider any decision. They are not easily upset, and are often easygoing and agreeable. If they go out of balance, however, they can become stubborn and seem to lack ambition. The key to keeping a K person in good balance is to keep them physically active and mentally stimulated.
K Energy State individuals have a good steady digestion, and it doesn’t bother them to miss an occasional meal. The K Energy State person loves food, but because they have a slower metabolism, they will gain weight easily, and must be careful to eat only moderate amounts.
K individuals generally have good endurance and strength, and regular active physical exercise is necessary to keep them from becoming overweight and lethargic (i.e. couch potatoes). Running, jogging, and energetic gym workouts are all very beneficial.
K Energy State individuals almost never have trouble falling asleep, but they often have a hard time getting up in the morning.

IMBALANCE IN THE K ENERGY STATE

Causes of K Imbalance
Too little activity
Lack of mental stimulation
Lack of regular exercise
Overeating Exposure to excessively hot, humid weather
Exposure to cold, damp weather
Excessive sleep
Signs of K Imbalance
Stubborn
Depressed
Lethargic
Lazy Sad
Withdrawn
Excess mucus
Weight gain
Recommendations To Balance K Energy State
Keep mentally and physically stimulated
Include regular outdoor activity and exercise Try not to overeat: light meals are best
Allow extra time for everything

VP and PV ENERGY STATES

A VP Energy State person is similar to a PV Energy State, but in written form, whichever Energy State is listed first is the one that predominates. A VP person is quick, inspiring, and full of new ideas, but at the same time is also focused and ready to complete the project. VPs can be both energetic and sensitive. One part of them is in motion, while the other is steadily goal-oriented.

When VPs are in good balance, they draw energy from their P qualities. When they are out of balance, their V qualities can cause them to become over-stimulated and quickly exhausted. This duality produces a reasonably strong but variable energy.
The digestion of a VP is like their energy, good but variable, and their appetite is similar. Because their gut is partially V, they may be a discriminating eater with strong preferences, and can be hungry one minute and not interested in food the next. But because their gut is also partially P, they need ample meals to sustain physical and mental activity. The presence of P indicates that it is especially important for VP individuals to eat on time. As a combination type, they have a more balanced appetite than people with either a pure V or a pure P Energy State.

When VPs are in good balance, they rarely have digestive problems. When out of balance, however, digestive issues can range from weak digestion to hyperacidity.
VP Energy State people are agile and have good energy and strength. They may also tend to be graceful. VP Energy individuals do not have a problem falling asleep unless they are over-stimulated before going to bed.

VK or KV ENERGY STATE

This Energy State is an interesting combination of opposites. The V Energy State is light and airy, while the K Energy State is heavy and earthy. This combination indicates both steadiness and enthusiasm.
When VK is in good balance, the result is good health and physical stamina. When it is out of balance, VK people are prone to frequent colds and respiratory problems. With this particular energy state, it’s important to remember that an imbalance of V will always push K out of balance, so V imbalances need to be addressed as soon as possible. VKs don’t do well in cold or damp weather and need to stay warm to avoid illness.

The VK combination gives rise to individuals who have a wide range of emotions. They are quick, inspiring, and full of new ideas, but at the same time they are stable, well liked, and methodical. VKs can be both grounded and sensitive. One part of them is in constant airy motion, while the other is steady and grounded.

When out of balance, a VK person tends to be spacey, withdrawn, or even depressed. They may also obsess on issues and become attached and/or anxious. It’s especially good for VKs to have enjoyable social outings and to stay rested, as well as energized, in order to balance the best aspects of their mind, body, and emotions.

The digestion of a VK Energy State person is virtually the same as a KV Energy State person. Again, as we mentioned, the energy state listed first indicates which is predominant. VKs are generally strong and steady, and enjoy an occasional snack. The V part of the VK combination makes the person a grazer, with a constantly changing appetite, while their K part makes them love to eat. When they are in good balance, V and K complement each other very well. They enjoy food, but don’t gain as much weight as pure K types until later in life.
When out of balance, the VK, KV digestion slows down and they become more sensitive to what they eat.
In regard to exercise, VK Energy State individuals are a mixture of opposites and may be sprinters as well as endurance runners.

VK Energy individuals can fall asleep and stay asleep as long as their V Energy State is balanced.

PK OR KP ENERGY STATE

PK Energy State people have the hot, transformative qualities of a P Energy State plus the cool, stable qualities of a K Energy State. If they are unable to stay in balance, however, they can boil over. PKs are generally large and strong and do well in sports. Many professional athletes are PK. They might not be the stars of the team, but they have the constitution to be very good players.
A PK tends to be strong, sturdy, content, and easygoing. Their high energy drive is steadied by their calm, easygoing nature. Imbalances can cause impatience, anger, and lethargy. They may also become argumentative, stubborn, and withdrawn. It’s very important for a PK particularly to maintain healthy family relationships and friendships in order to stay in good balance.
In the heat of the moment a PK might not think problems through completely. And if decisions backfire, they may be prone to useless regret. A PK individual will be happier and healthier spending more time listening and less time making assumptions and running scenarios in their head.
The PK digestion and appetite is virtually the same as KP. In both cases, each of the combined energy states is strong, but P will predominate. People with a P gut have a good appetite, and strong digestion. If they have a PK gut, they will have an even stronger appetite. PKs like to eat, and generally digest easily. Because their gut is part K, however, their metabolism slows down at times and they may have a hard time digesting greasy foods. It’s easy for PKs to gain a few extra pounds, but they can usually lose them without great effort.
When PKs are in good balance, they rarely have digestive problems. When out of balance, however, they must be aware of slower digestion and hyperacidity.
PKs need to exercise daily. They have excellent stamina in activity, but must remember not to get overheated. The PK or KP individual generally falls asleep easily and gets a good sound sleep.

VPK ENERGY STATE OR “TRI-ENERGY STATE”

This is a relatively rare mixture of the three types and, when it is in balance, shows the best qualities of each. VPKs are often creative, motivated, steady, and good-natured. When they are in good balance, they tend to be in tune with their body and emotions and may be intuitive. Physically strong with a moderate build, VPKs are usually in good health. They avoid most seasonal illnesses and experience only mild to moderate symptoms during each season (e.g. dry skin in the winter, some lethargy in the spring, and mild heat intolerance in the summer).
Life for a VPK becomes complicated when one or more of their three Energy States goes out of balance and it is helpful for them to learn to “check in” with themselves and be alert to when something doesn’t feel right. The best advice for VPKs is to treat any imbalances in the following order:

Start by balancing V
Go on to balance P
Finally address K

Keep in mind that it takes a VPK Energy State person longer to come back into balance than the other Energy State combinations.
The digestion and appetite of a VPK Energy State person should be good since they have a stronger digestion than others. They can eat almost any kind of food and rarely experience excessive hunger or thirst. However, because their symptoms are usually mild and somewhat veiled, it is hard to pinpoint how and when they go out of balance, so it’s especially valuable for them to learn to listen to their body and use Self Pulse as a reliable indicator of their state of balance.
Possessing all three characteristics, they are capable of different types of exercise. The main thing is to not overdo it. Because of their K Energy State, sleep is their friend. If they do go out of balance, it is usually the V Energy State which causes a sleep problem.

ENERGY STATE CONCLUSION

No single Energy State is better than another and each of us can rise to our full potential by staying in balance and achieving maximum levels of energy, performance, and success. For recommendations about specific Energy State diets, including teas, spice mixes, and recipes, see The Rest and Repair Diet: Heal Your Gut, Improve Your Physical and Mental Health, and Lose Weight, and visit the website at docgut.com.

YOGA

Yoga has long been recognized as a method to improve and maintain your body while you are on the path to health, happiness, success, fulfillment, and ultimately enlightenment. Research has shown that yoga postures improve certain psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression, and provide health benefits for those with high blood pressure, various pain syndromes, and immune disorders.

Choose whichever form of yoga best suits your individual nature, age, and needs. We recommend the Maharishi Yoga Asana program because it is especially respectful of your body and consciousness, and supports the experience of transcendence.

THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF TRANSFORMATION

How do you make a change or transformation in your life? Change usually requires a certain degree of energy, and you must also be prepared to take a new path, one which might conflict with your current habits. This means overcoming existing habits and even deeply rooted addictions in your physiology and neurochemistry.

Numerous experiments clearly show that experience changes the brain. When you learn to play a new musical instrument, for example, certain areas in the motor cortex become thicker. The brain is incredibly dynamic, with new synapses and pathways constantly being formed and supported by molecular changes in your neurons and supporting cells. And these may be initiated by changes in the expression of specific genes.

Behavioral changes are also influenced by your gut bacteria. You now know that your gut bacteria play an important role in weight gain or loss, and can even influence the brain pathways involved in eating disorders and alcohol and drug addiction.
So how do you make a change? Let’s take a simple example: Say you are overweight and want to lose a few pounds. You may simply want to look better, or you might need to lose weight because your doctor tells you that obesity is a primary risk factor for diabetes and heart disease.

Is this motivation enough? Well, it’s a beginning. The next step is to start to make some changes in your life, and change requires the rewiring of specific circuits or networks in your brain, as well as the rebooting of your microbiome. Some habits have been reinforced since early childhood and the neural networks and physiological patterns in your body have been present for a long time.

One positive habit change can stimulate a series of further changes in a sort of cascade. This is the definition of a Super Habit. If you learn to meditate, for example, or begin a certain kind of exercise program, it can then be easier to stop smoking, lose weight, and make other positive lifestyle changes.

Ayurveda suggests that you make small changes slowly in the beginning and understand that it will take time before the change really “sticks.” If you consider that your habits are based on physical neural circuits in your brain and/or a disruption in your microbiome, you will understand that these complex physical systems take time to change. New, alternative circuits have to be created in your brain, and healing your gut lining and rebooting your microbiome will nourish and support this process.

In the books Self Empower and Total Brain Coaching we offer some basic tools so that you can immediately begin to take small steps forward in your process of change. And we encourage you to take advantage of every health resource available to you in your journey of transformation to a new level of health and happiness (see References below).
Remember, a few simple changes in your lifestyle and eating habits will naturally help improve every aspect of your physical and mental health.

Scientific Research on Ayurveda and Energy States

Recent studies have shown that there is a scientific basis to Ayurveda and its evaluation of each person’s Energy State or Prakriti. There is a whole new field emerging called Ayurgenomics. Genetic research, for example, has shown that the Vata (V Energy State), Pitta (P Energy State), and Kapha (K Energy State) Prakriti each expresses a different set of genes. See scientific references 1 and 2 in the list below.

Genes in the immune response pathways, for example, were turned on or up-regulated in extreme Pittas. In Vatas, genes related to cell cycles were turned on. In Kaphas it was found that genes in the immune signaling pathways were turned on. Inflammatory genes were up-regulated in Vatas, whereas up-regulation of oxidative stress pathway genes was observed in Pittas and Kaphas. See reference number 3 below. CD25 (activated B cells) and CD56 (natural killer cells) were higher in Kaphas. CYP2C19 genotypes, a family of genes that help in detoxification and metabolism of certain drugs, were turned off or down-regulated in Kapha types and turned on in Pitta types. See references 4 and 5 below.

Extreme Vata, Pitta, and Kapha individuals also have significant differences in specific physiological measurements. Again, see references 1 and 2 below. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations—all common risk factors for cardiovascular disease—were reported to be higher in Kaphas compared to Vatas. Hemoglobin and red blood cell count were higher in Pittas compared to others. Serum prolactin was higher in Vata individuals. See reference 2 below. High levels of triglyceride, VLDL and LDL levels and lower levels of HDL cholesterol distinguish Kaphas from others. See reference 6 below.

Adenosine diphosphate-induced maximal platelet aggregation was the highest among Vata/Pitta types. See reference 7 below. In diabetic patients, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure in Vata/Pitta, Pitta/Kapha, and Vata/Kapha types after walking (isotonic exercise). The Vata/Pitta types also showed significant decreases in mean diastolic blood pressure. See reference 8 below. In terms of biochemistry, Kaphas had elevated digoxin levels, increased free radical production, and reduced scavenging, increased tryptophan catabolites and reduced tyrosine catabolites, increased glycoconjugate levels, and increased cholesterol. Pittas showed the opposite biochemical patterns. Vatas showed normal biochemical patterns. See reference 9 below.

A study of basic cardiovascular responses reported that heart rate variability and arterial blood pressure during specific postural changes, exercise, and cold pressor test did not vary with constitutional type. See reference 10 below. A more recent paper measuring cold pressor test, standing-to-lying ratio, and pupillary responses in light and dark reported that Kapha types have higher parasympathetic activity and lower sympathetic activity in terms of cardiovascular reactivity as compared to Pitta or Vata types. See reference 11 below.
Studies have show that predominantly Vata, Pitta, or Kapha people had a different composition of bacteria in their microbiome and that the microbiome can be related to many key Ayurvedic concepts and practices. See reference 12 and 13 below. Travis and Wallace have reviewed many of these findings, and created a neurophysiological model of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha based on the functioning of different neural networks. See reference 14 below. More recent papers, (references 15 and 16) show how Ayurveda can be seen as an epigenetic process in which lifestlye recommendations alter gene expression and create more effective neuroadaptability.

REFERENCES

1. Dey S, Pahwa P. Prakriti and its associations with metabolism, chronic diseases, and genotypes: Possibilities of new born screening and a lifetime of personalized prevention. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014;5:15‑24.
2. Wallace, R.K. Ayurgenomics and Modern Medicine. Medicina 2020, 56, 661.
3. Juyal RC, Negi S, Wakhode P, Bhat S, Bhat B, Thelma BK. Potential of ayurgenomics approach in complex trait research: Leads from a pilot study on rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS One. 2012;7:e45752.
4. Ghodke Y, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Traditional medicine to modern pharmacogenomics: Ayurveda Prakriti type and CYP2C19 gene polymorphism associated with the metabolic variability. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:249528.
5. Aggarwal S, Negi S, Jha P, Singh PK, Stobdan T, Pasha MA. Indian genome variation consortium. EGLN1 involvement in high‑altitude adaptation revealed through genetic analysis of extreme constitution types defined in Ayurveda. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2010;107:18961‑6.
6. Mahalle NP, Kulkarni MV, Pendse NM, Naik SS. Association of constitutional type of Ayurveda with cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2012;3:150‑7.
7. Bhalerao S, Deshpande T, Thatte U. Prakriti (Ayurvedic concept of constitution) and variations in Platelet aggregation. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:248‑56.
8. Tiwari S, Gehlot S, Tiwari SK, Singh G. Effect of walking (aerobic isotonic exercise) on physiological variants with special reference to Prameha (diabetes mellitus) as per Prakriti. Ayu 2012;33:44‑9.
9. Kurup RK, Kurup PA. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory. Int J Neurosci 2003;113:657‑81.
10. Tripathi PK, Patwardhan K, Singh G. The basic cardiovascular responses to postural changes, exercise and cold pressor test: Do they vary in accordance with the dual constitutional types of Ayurveda? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;201:251‑9.
11. Rapolu SB, Kumar M, Singh G, Patwardhan K. Physiological variations in the autonomic responses may be related to the constitutional types defined in Ayurveda. J Humanitas Med 2015;5:e7.
12. Chauhan NS, Pandey R, Mondal AK, Gupta S, Verma MK, Jain S, et al. Western Indian Rural Gut Microbial Diversity in Extreme Prakriti Endo-Phenotypes Reveals Signature Microbes. Front. Microbiol. 2018; 9:118. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00118. eCollection 2018.
13. Wallace, R.K. The Microbiome in Health and Disease from the Perspective of Modern Medicine and Ayurveda. Medicina 2020, 56, 462. doi: 10.3390/medicina56090462
14. Travis, FT, Wallace, RK, Dosha brain-types: A neural model of individual differences. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015; 6, 280-85.
15. Sharma, H.; Wallace, R.K. Ayurveda and Epigenetics. Medicina 2020, 56, 687. doi: 10.3390/medicina56120687
16. Wallace, R.K.; Wallace, T. Neuroadaptability and Habit: Modern Medicine and Ayurveda. Medici-na 2021, 57, 90. doi:10.3390/